Modern European Languages Postgraduate Programmes



The philosophy of the M.A. and the Ph.D. programmes in French Language and Literature in Nigerian universities is to train and develop scholars whose critical inquiries into the use of the French Language as a medium of communication, in both regular linguistic exchange and critical or scientific writing, would reassert human values and appreciate the complexity of human motivations and actions. In a world where international relations are vital and where Nigeria is expected to play a prominent role, the need for mastery of foreign languages, especially French and other European languages, cannot be over emphasized. In Nigeria, competent authorities in such specialized areas as contained in the Postgraduate programmes of the department are few. The need for such competent authorities becomes more and more acute in the countries higher educational institutions, civil service, Foreign Service, International Organisations, Public and Private sectors, etc. The products of the M.A. and Ph.D. programmes are therefore expected to acquire linguistic, critical and analytic competencies that would enable them exhibit a high proficiency in the use of the French Language on a variety of discourse situations, critically analyzing and interpreting texts in the language. In other words, a postgraduate student of the department is expected to master a special field in French Studies, through research and make an original contribution to human knowledge.

Aims and Objectives

The main aim of the postgraduate programmes of the department of Modern European Languages  of Nnamdi Azikiwe University , Awka, is to train candidates in these important areas, through fostering independent scholarship, competence in research as well as in-depth knowledge in a chosen area of specialization. In other words, by exposing students to advanced knowledge in the disciplines  of French Language and Literature, the M.A. and Ph.D. programmes aim at producing scholars who would utilize their knowledge of the French Language and Literature for human, national, African and global development.

Job Opportunities

These include careers in translation and interpretation, in civil and diplomatic services, institutions of higher learning, banking, publishing, radio and television, industries, etc.

Levels of Postgraduate Studies

  1. Postgraduate Diploma (PGD)
  2. Master of Art   (M.A.)
  3. Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)



The PGD programme is designed as a make-up programme for candidates who could not make the minimum pass grade to qualify for admission into the M.A. programme.

Admission Requirements

The admission requirements into the various postgraduate programmes are as follows:

  • Postgraduate Diploma (PGD)

A first degree or its equivalent, including  BA Education/French, from a recognized university. All candidates must meet the university matriculation requirements.

  1. Master of Arts (M.A.)
  2. All candidates must possess the minimum of five O/Level Credit passes, which must include English Language.
  3. Candidates must possess a good Bachelor’s degree in French or French Studies, French Language or French Literary Studies, or other recognized/accepted equivalent, not lower than a second class lower division from a recognized university.
  • A good postgraduate diploma with an FCGPA of 3.00 from a recognized university
  1. All candidates must be subjected to a selection process.


  1. Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
  2. All candidates must possess the minimum of five O/Level Credit passes, which must include English Language.
  3. Candidates must possess a good Master’s degree in French, French Studies, French Language or French Literary Studies from a recognized university, with a CGPA of not below 3.5 on a five-point scale.
  • Candidates with deficiency in some core courses may be required to take remedial courses.



Candidates of M.A. and Ph.D. programmes in French may specialize in any of the following general areas:

  1. French Literature
  2. African and Caribbean Literature in French
  3. Comparative Literature in French
  4. Oral African Literature in French
  5. French Language and Linguistics
  6. French Language and Translation



The postgraduate programmes are run at full-time and part-time. There are minimum and maximum length of time prescribed as follows:

ProgrammesFull timePart time
PGDMin of 2 semestersMax of 3 semestersMin of 3 semestersMax of 4 semesters
M.A.Min of 3 semestersMax of 4 semestersMin of 6 semestersMax of 8 semesters
Ph.D.Min of 6 semestersMax of 10 semestersMin of 8 semestersMax of 10 semesters



PGD (Literature in French)

PGD (French Language and Linguistics)

PGD (French Language and Translation)



M.A.  (French Literature)

M.A. (African and Caribbean Literature in French)

M.A. (Comparative Literature in French)

M.A. (Oral African Literature in French)

M.A. (French Language and Linguistics)

M.A. (French Language and Translation)



Ph.D.  (French Literature)

Ph.D.  (African and Caribbean Literature in French)

Ph.D.  (Comparative Literature in French)

Ph.D.  (Oral African Literature in French)

Ph.D.  (French Language and Linguistics)

Ph.D.  (French Language and Translation)




To be awarded the Postgraduate Diploma in any of the areas of specialization, a candidate must have taken and passed the prescribed number of compulsory and required courses selected from the approved list, and totaling  units as follows:

Core Courses   ………………………….       26 Credit

Dissertation     ……………………………   6 Credit

TOTAL…………………………………       32 Credit


  1. A. Programme

To be awarded the M.A. degree in any of the areas of specialization in French Language, Literature or Literary Studies, a candidate must have taken and passed the prescribed number of compulsory and required courses selected from the approved list, and totaling 30 units as follows:

Core Courses   ………………………………………….     24 Credit

Dissertation     …………………………………………      6 Credit

TOTAL………………………………………………         30 Credit


In all cases, M.A. students must write and submit to the department a thesis/dissertation duly supervised by a lecturer in the department whose qualifications are not below the Ph.D. Such a thesis must be defended before an External Examiner nominated by the department and appointed by the  Senate for that purpose.

  1. D. Programme

To graduate, all Ph.D. candidates must take and pass all the requisite courses as prescribed in the Ph.D. course list below totaling 27 units as follows:

Core Courses   …………………………………………….18 Credit

Dissertation/Thesis      ……………………………………9 Credit

TOTAL………………………………………………….27 Credit


Every Ph.D. candidate must submit a dissertation on a chosen and approved topic, supervised by a member of staff, whose qualifications is not below the Ph.D., and who is not lower than a Senior Lecturer in rank. The Ph.D. thesis must be defended before an External Examiner nominated by the department and appointed by the  Senate for that purpose.



  1. Good Standing

To be in good standing, a student must in each semester have a Cumulative Grade             Point Average (CGPA) of not less than 3.0 on a five-point scale.

  1. Withdrawal

An M.A. candidate whose CGPA is below 3.0 at the end of the third semester of course work shall be required to withdraw from the university,

  • Attendance

In order to be eligible for examination in a particular taught course, a student shall have attended  a minimum of 75% of the total periods of formal instructions delivered for the course.



In the M.A. and Ph.D. programmes, the assessment of students’ achievements would be based on:


  1. Terminal examination administered at the end of the course;
  2. Term papers, Seminar Papers and
  • Field Research/Reports, Group Projects, etc.



All continuous assessment scores shall constitute 30% – 40% of the total scores for a course, while the formal examination shall constitute 60-70%.



For the M.A. and Ph.D. programmes, there shall be duly appointed External Examiners, who would assess and certify the overall performance of the students in their dissertations and theses and any other aspect of the evaluation process that may from time to time may be approved by Senate.



The minimum pass mark for M.A. and Ph.D. courses shall be 50%.




Grading of courses shall be done by a combination of percentage marks and letter grades translated into a graduated system of Grade Point Equivalent (or Grade Point Average GPA). For the purpose of determining  a student’s standing at the end of every semester, the Grade Point Average (GPA) system shall be used. The GPA is computed by dividing the total number of credit points (or units) by the total number of units for all the courses taken in the semester. The credit point for a course is computed by multiplying the number of units for the course by the Grade Point Equivalent of the marks scored in the course. Each course shall be graded out of a maximum of 100 marks and assigned appropriate Grade Point Equivalent as in the table (1) below

Table 1:




(ii) % SCORE(iii)








Cum. Grade point average (CGPA)



Vary according to contact hours assigned to each course per week per semester, and according to load carried by students 

70 – 100

A5Derived by multiplying(i) and (iv) and dividing by Total Credit units4.50 – 5.00DISTINCTION
60 – 69B43.45 – 4.49CREDIT
50 – 59C33.0 – 3.44PASS
Below 50F0Below 3.0Fail


Results for the M.A. and Ph. D. examination shall be presented from the School of Postgraduate Studies Board of Examiners to the Senate for approval.



Release of Results

Results shall be released published not later than two (2) weeks after approval by Senate.


Degree Classification

The determination of the class of degree shall be based on the Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) earned at the end of the programme, as indicated in the table (2) below:



(i)4.50 – 5.00DISTINCTION
(ii)3.45 – 4.49CREDIT
(iii)3.00 – 3.44PASS
(iv)BELOW 3.00FAIL




This should be determined by the carrying capacity of the department, and should take student enrolment in the undergraduate programmes into account.


Lecturers in the M.A. and Ph.D. prorammes should not have more than six (6) Credits (i.e. 90 hours) per semester.

(iii)       STAFFING

Academic Staff involved in the M.A. and Ph.D. programmes shall normally be holders of the Ph.D. No lecturer should supervise more than 3 Ph.D. candidates and 2 M.A. candidates at a time.

However, whereas Ph.D. holders may take lectures in both programmes, those below the rank of Senior Lecturer shall not supervise doctoral theses.


(iv)       STAFF MIX

The recommended staff mix for effective curriculum delivery is 20:30:50 for Professor /Reader, Senior Lecturer; and Others.


(v)        Non-Academic Staff

We recommend the recruitment of competent technical, secretarial and clerical staff to complement the academic staff in maintaining equipment such as those in the Language Laboratory, Audio-visual and Reprographic Rooms, and provide secretarial services whenever necessary.

  1. a) The ratio of non-teaching staff to academic staff should be 1:4
  2. b) Among the non-academic staff, the ratio of Senior Staff to Junior Staff should be 3:2


Computer Literacy

With the computer age and application of information technology, both academic and non-academic staff should be computer literate.  Where they are not, the university should establish structures to ensure that this becomes a reality.


Academic Physical Space and Equipment Requirements Physical Facilities

Lecture Rooms

Seminar Rooms

Board Room

Computer Room, including Virtual Library Facilities


Office Accommodation

Position/Rank                                                m2

Professor’s Office                                           18.50

Head of Department’s Office                         18.50

Tutorial Staff Office                                       13.50

Technical Staff Space                                     7.00

Secretarial Staff Space                                      7.00

Seminar Space per Student                               1.85


Classroom Space and Examination Theatres

Adequate Classrooms and Seminar Rooms should be provided with enough chairs and tables;

Adequate Examination halls and theatres should also be provided.





For effective teaching and learning, the following equipment and facilities

Well-equipped language laboratory

Computer (PCs and Laptops)

Reprographic Equipment (E.g. Photocopiers, etc.)

Video Camera

Projector and Screen

Tape Recorder

Internet and E-mail facilites



There must be adequate library facility, special holdings in the main library for the department in the General and Journal section, and a departmental library. In general, dedicated collections for the Department must feature current issues of local peer-reviewed journals, international journals in the discipline, and current textbooks, critical works, novels, poetry collections and dramatic works.


Learning outcomes for M.A. And ph.D. Programmes

The identified communication deficiencies of graduates of French, which the postgraduate programmes in French wish to address, mean that the graduates of these programmes should be able to communicate excellently in the French language, and show creativity in the use French in discourse situations and/or in creative and critical writing.


1st Semester/All Options/ Full TimeCredit 
FRE 501    Advanced Oral French 2 
FRE 502    Literary Criticism in French  2 
FRE 503    Research Methods 2 
FRE 504     General Linguistics 2 
FRE 505    French Grammar and stylistics 2 
FRE 506    Linguistics Applied to the Teaching of French 2 
FRE 507     Advanced Essay writing 2 
FRE 508     Translation of Documents2 
FRE 509     World Literature in Translation2 
 18 credits 
PGD Literature Option      
2nd Semester/Literature Option/ Full TimeCredit 
FRE 510    19th Century French Literature 2 
FRE 511     20th Century French Literature 2 
FRE 512     African Francophone Literature 2 
FRE 513      Caribbean Francophone Literature2 
FRE 524     Project/Long Essay6 
 14 Credits 

Total Credit Units Required  for the PGD Literature Option = 32 Units


PGD Translation Option


2nd Semester/Translation Option/ Full TimeCredit 
FRE 514        Translation of Literary Texts2 
FRE 515        Translation of non-literary texts 2 
FRE 516        Translation of Document2 
FRE 517         Cultural and Linguistic Problems of Translation 2 
FRE 524     Project/Long Essay 6 
  14 Credits 
Total Credit Units Required  for the PGD Translation Option    = 32 credits    
PGD Linguistics Option  
2nd Semester/Linguistics Option/ Full Time Credit 
FRE 518   Review of Modern French Grammar 2 
FRE 519   French Tenses, Aspects and Modals 2 
FRE 520  Semantics and Lexicology of French 2 
FRE 521  Phonetics & Phonology 2 
FRE 524   Project /Long Essay 6 
M.A. African & Caribbean Literature in   French       
1st  Semester  (Core Courses)Credit 
FRE  601     Research Methodology  3 
FRE  602     Literary Theory and Criticism3 
FRE  603     African Fiction of the Colonial Times3 
FRE  604     Francophone African Theatre and Drama3 
Electives (Choose one)   
FRE 605     Stylistics and the Literary Analysis3 
FRE 606     Issues in Comparative Literature3 
FRE 607     Advanced Translation I3 
2nd  Semester  (Core Courses)Credit 
FRE 608     Postcolonial Literature (Fiction)3 
FRE 609     Francophone African Poetry and Drama in French3 
FRE 610     African-American and Caribbean Literature in French3 
FRE 611     Francophonie and Francophone Literature3 
TOTAL12 Credits 

Electives (Choose one)


FRE 612     Modern Literature of France3 
FRE 613     Realism in World Literature3 
FRE 614     Advanced Translation II3 

Total Core Courses      =          24 credit

FRE 642   M.A. Dissertation          =             6 credit

TOTAL REQUIRED        =         30 credit                                                              


M.A. Comparative Literature


1st  Semester (Core Courses)Credit 
FRE 601    Research Methodology3 
FRE 602    Literary Theory and Criticism3 
FRE 605    Stylistics and Literary Analysis3 
FRE 615    Issues in Comparative Literature3 
TOTAL12 credits 
Elective: FRE 607 Adv Translation I

NB: (*) The following courses marked asterisks are to be based on any relevant or local African Oral Literature(s) and written African Literature in any two or more European Languages: English, French, German, Spanish, even if in translation.

2nd Semester (Core Courses)Credits 
FRE 616    Comparative Studies in the African Novel3 
FRE 617    Comparative Studies in Poetry (French, English, African)3 
FRE 618    Comparative Studies in Drama3 
FRE 610    African-American and Caribbean Literature in French3 
TOTAL12 credits 
Electives (Choose one)  
FRE 619     Modern European Literature3 
FRE 613     Realism in World Literature3 
FRE 614     Adv. Translation II3 
Total Core Courses      =          24 credits

FRE 642 M.A. Dissertation           =             6 credit

TOTAL REQUIRED        =         30 credits                                                              







M.A. French Literature


1st  Semester (Core Courses)Credit 
FRE 601    Research Methodology3 
FRE 602    Literary Theory and Criticism3 
FRE 620    French Fiction Since the 19th Century3 
FRE 621    Trends in the French Drama from Classical Age to the End of the 19th    Century3 
Electives (Choose one)      
FRE 605    Stylistics and Literary Analysis3 
FRE 615    Issues in Comparative Literature3 
FRE 607     Advanced Translation I3 
2nd  Semester (Core Courses)Credit 
FRE 601    Main Movements in French Poetry over the Ages3 
FRE 622    French Theatre and Drama in Modern Times:  The Absurd, Before and After3 
FRE 611    Francophonie and Francophone Literature3 
FRE 623     Modern Literature of Revolt in France3 

Electives (Choose one)

FRE 613     Realism in World Literature3 
FRE 614     Adv. Translation II3 
Total Core Courses      =          24 credit

FRE 642 M.A. Dissertation           =             6 credit

TOTAL REQUIRED        =         30 credit






M.A. French Language and Linguistics      
1st Semester (Core Courses)Credits 
FRE 601    Research Methodology3 
FRE 624    French Phonetics and Phonology3 
FRE 625   Syntax and Morphology of Modern French3 
FRE 626   Lexicology, Semantics & Pragmatics of French3 

Electives (Choose one)

FRE 638    Bilingualism and Multilingualism3 
FRE 639    Varieties of French3 
FRE 607     Advanced Translation I3 
FRE 640    Applied Linguistics3 
2nd Semester (Core Courses)Credits 
FRE 628    Discourse Analysis3 
FRE 629    Contrastive Linguistics3 
FRE 630    The French Language in Nigeria3 
Electives (Choose one)      
FRE 631    Sociolinguistics3 
FRE 632    Psycholinguistics3 
FRE 633    French as a Foreign Language3 
FRE 614     Adv. Translation II3 
Total Core Courses      =          24 credit

 FRE 642 M.A. Dissertation           =             6 credit

TOTAL REQUIRED        =         30 credit                                                              





M.A. French Language and Translation

1st  Semester (Core Courses)Credit 
FRE 601    Research Methodology3 
FRE 634    Theories and Methods of Translation3 
FRE 635    Advanced Studies in Literary Translation3 
FRE 636    Machine Translation3 
Electives (Choose one)      
FRE 625  Syntax and Morphology of Modern French3 
FRE 627   Stylistics3 
2nd Semester (Core Courses)Credit 
FRE 638    Advanced Studies in Non-Literary Translation3 
FRE 639    Pragmatics of  Translation3 
FRE 640      Terminology Theory and Research3 
FRE 641      World Literature in Translation3 
Electives (Choose one)


FRE 628    Discourse Analysis3 
FRE 633    French as a Foreign Language3 
Total Core Courses      =          24 credits

FRE 642 M.A. Dissertation           =             6 credit

TOTAL REQUIRED        =         30 credits





1ST Semester (Core Courses)Credits 
FRE 701    Current Techniques of Critical Discourse in Africa3 
FRE 702    World Literatures in French3 
FRE 703    Doctoral Seminar I3 
2nd   Semester (Core Courses)Credit 
FRE 704   Postcolonial Literature in French3 
FRE 705  African and Black World Literatures in French3 
FRE 706  Doctoral Seminar II3 
Total Core Courses    =   18 credits

FRE 720 Ph.D. Thesis    =     9 credits

Total Required   =   27 credits



Ph.D. in Comparative Literature      
1st  Semester   (Core Courses)Credits 
FRE 707   Current Techniques of Critical Discourse in Comparative Literature3 
FRE 702    World Literatures in French3 
FRE 703    Doctoral Seminar I3 
2nd  Semester  (Core Courses)Credit 
Theme Studies, Influences Literatures of Ideas3 
FRE 705  African and Black World Literatures in French3 
FRE 706  Doctoral Seminar II3 

Total Core Courses    =   18 credits

FRE 720 Ph.D. Thesis    =     9 credits

Total Required   =   27 credits


Ph.D. in French Literature      
1st Semester (Core Courses)  
FRE 708    Current Techniques of Critical Discourse in France3 
FRE 709    World Literature in French3 
FRE 703    Doctoral Seminar I3 
2nd  Semester (Core Courses)Credits 
FRE 710   21st Century French Literature3 
FRE 705  Current Trends in French Literature3 
FRE 706  Doctoral Seminar II3 

Total Core Courses    =   18 credits

FRE 720 Ph.D. Thesis    =     9 credits

Total Required   =   27 credits


Ph.D. in French Language and Linguistics     
1st Semester (Core Courses)Credits 
FRE 711   Linguistic Theory and Modern French3 
FRE 712   Applied Linguistics in French3 
FRE 703    Doctoral Seminar I3 
2nd  Semester  (Core Courses)Credits 
FRE 713   Language Acquisition3 
FRE 714   Semantics3 
FRE 706  Doctoral Seminar II3 

Electives (Choose one)

FRE 715  French-Based Pidgins/Creoles3 
FRE 716  Lexicography3 
Total Core Courses =    18 credits

FRE 720 Ph.D. Thesis   =       9 credits

Total Required       =     27 credits


Ph.D. in French Language and Translation


1st  Semester  (Core Courses)Credits 
FRE 716   Advanced Theories and Methods of Translation3 
FRE 717   Stylistic Comparison3 
FRE 703   Doctoral Seminar I3 
2nd Semester (Core Courses)Credits 
FRE 718  Bilingualism, Multilingualism and Interpretation3 
FRE 719    Linguistic, Cultural and Ideological Problems of Translation3 
FRE 706    Doctoral Seminar II3 
Total Core Courses =    18 credits

FRE 720 Ph.D. Thesis   =       9 credits

Total Required       =     27 credits




FRE 501:    Advanced Oral French

This course encourages oral participation by students, thereby enhancing fluency in French Language. It comprises oral exercises such as «exposé, commentaries de  texte, débats », etc.






FRE 502:     Research Methods

An introduction to the use of research, library facilities, the techniques of referencing and the presentation of materials in dissertation form.


FRE 503:     Literary Criticism in French

An introduction to the various approaches with special emphasis on thematic approach.


FRE 511:    General Linguistics

The course focuses attention on the rudiments of general linguistic theories and methods. Types of communication; nature functions and varieties of language; branches of language; branches of linguistics; definition of key concepts, etc.




FRE 512A:    Linguistics Applied to the Teaching of French

This course acquaints students with the socio-pedagogical contexts of learning texts, vocabulary, and grammatical functions of French as a foreign language.


FRE 512B: Psycholinguistics

A critical study of the relation between language and psychology, with emphasis on language acquisition.


FRE 513:    French Grammar and stylistics

A thorough revision of grammatical and stylistic resources for effective translation from French to English and vice versa.


FRE 514: Advanced Essay Writing in French

This course aims at training the students in logical presentation of ideas, arguments through writing long essays in French on subjects preferably original and related to any area of French studies.


FRE 521: 19th Century French Literature

A study of the various literary genres of the 19th century French Literature such as “Pre-Romantisme, Romantisme, Naturalisme”, etc.




FRE 522: 20th Century French Literature

A study of the various literary genres of the 20th century French Literature such as “Existentialisme, Surrealisme, etc.


FRE 531: African Francophone Literature

An in-depth study of the works of representative writers of African Francophone Literature in the various genres.


FRE 532: Caribbean Francophone Literature

An in-depth study of the works of representative writers of Caribbean Francophone Literature in the various genres.


FRE 541: African Oral Literature in French

This course focuses attention on the oral tradition of African Anglophone and Francophone literature with in-depth study of major literary works of representative of the two worlds.


FRE 561: Advanced Translation 
This course involves a continuous practice in translation: French/English/French; heoretical and practical approaches of bilingual person to the process of translation, summary writing, etc.


FRE 562: World Literature in Translation

An in-depth study of some works written in other languages but translated into French.


FRE 563:       Special Problems in Practical Translation

The student practices translation from and into French with special focus on identifying possible problem areas and finding solution of general application.


FRE 564:       Translation of Literary Texts

This course concentrates fully on the special methods and skills needed for literary translation from French into English and offers practice with a variety of texts.


FRE 565:     Translation of non-literary texts  

Comprehensive practice in various texts from technical, scientific, administrative and political contexts and introduction to the problems of translation of specialized codes.


FRE 566:        Translation of Document

A special practice in format, phraseology and technical language, in the translation of various types of documents and certificates.




FRE 581:  Project/Dissertation

A long essay in MLA style sheet on a topic in French studies chosen by the student and approved by the supervisor. The essay should show a well researched original work and make a contribution to knowledge.






(Each may e used solely or in combination with other(s)



Literary Theory and Criticism

The development of literary criticism and theory informs every aspect of literary studies especially at the post-graduate levels.  This course examines the diversities of critical issues and approaches at

the basis of differing theories of literature and practices of criticism – biography, chronology, sources, influences and bibliography in relation to literature, the intersections of literature and other disciplines, etc.  Literature’s interactions with philosophy, psychology, sociology, ideology and the way literary theories are enriched by inter-disciplinary thrusts will be discussed.


The theory and practice of literary criticism as they have evolved in various parts of the world since Aristotle will be examined.  Authors and texts will be studied from recent perspectives.  Theories such as formalism, structuralism, post-formalism, post-structural and Reader-response theory will be critiqued.  More modern and contemporary criticism and theories that will be studied include semiotics, Deconstruction, post construction, Gender theories, inter-textuality, psycho-analysis and symbolism.


Students will study specific classical and modern critics of France as illustrations of the ideas introduced into literary theory and criticism from the Francophone world.  There will be an assessment of the modern an contemporary periods as the melting pot of all theories and practices over the ages.

African Literary Theory and Criticism

A study that builds on Literary Theory and Criticism generally.  It examines the varying discourses on literary theorization and practical criticism of African literature from the colonial period to the present.  Examination and evaluation of theories, poetics and aesthetics of both oral written literatures as developed on African and black Literatures of the world.  Specific attention will  e paid

to literary theories and practical criticisms as engaged in by and black writers and critics themselves.


Research Methodology

This course seeks to guide students towards A successful planning and execution of their research projects.  It critically presents of research methods and approaches, exposing students to the challenges of research.  Issues of emphasis include editing, authenticity, plagiarism, interpretation, original research and documentation.  It equips students and prepares them for thesis writing.  It aims at the conceptualization, identification and clear formulation of research problems, objectives and hypothesis.  It focuses on the classification and analysis of data collected, and sheds light on the investigation and identification of appropriate methods, parameters and paradigms for structuring theses within specified theoretical framework.


The West African Novel in French Before Independence A study of prose works, especially the novel, written by West African authors (Senegal to Cameroun) stressing among other things, the emergence of written prose in modern African culture and the different trends that are visible in the subjects of those work Short stories, especially translation and adaptations from traditional literature will be studied.  A study of the works relating them to the role of written Literature in the modern African situation.  Special works will be studied in detail especially in relation to the category in which their subjects are grouped.


The Literature of Disillusionment:  The West African Novel in French Since Independence

Attention will be focused on the departure from ‘commitment’ as demonstrated in pre- Independence poetry and fiction, from the fight against assimilation to the re-definition of new goals requiring not only a rejection of the imported values, but also a re-assessment of traditional culture.  New trends in the concept of Africana, the new literature and the description of post-independence socio-political reality  will be given attention.


Theatre Drama in Francophone Africa

A study of written drama in Francophone Arica.  Emphasis will be laid on the epic-historical orientation of the genre, the struggle for independence, the influence of French Drama on African Drama in French and the new orientations in Francophone Africa Drama.  Specific dramatists will be studied$.


Afro-Caribbean Literature in Colonial Times

A study of the tradition of commitment in Francophone poetry and fiction; its origin, its aims and objectives, its artistic as well as ideological achievements; the Negritude philosophy in poetry and

fiction and the novel in the struggle for politico-cultural independence Reacted by a rapidly changing social reality.


The African Diaspora Literature in French

A study of Afro-Caribbean literature stressing two importance Issues: Africa traditional culture in Francophone literature written in the New World; influence of the New World on African artists  using the same language.  Issues like the Negron Renaissance in the New World, the search for cultural identity etc. will be related to contemporary developments in Africa and in France.  Specific Caribbean works will be studied to illustrate the search for cultural identity.


Feminism/Womanism and Francophone Female African Writers

The number of Francophone female writers, especially novelists, has increase considerably in recent times to merit singular critical attention.  This course will therefore discuss feminist/woman) st theories from their origins, specifying their aims and achievements with relation to women’s experiences especially As regards the literary field.  The theoretical exposition will be following by a detailed study of the works of any two Francophone female Africa writers who have made their mark on the literary scene.


Issues and Problems of Comparative Literature

An introduction To the general issues and problems of Comparative literature; history and methods; evaluation, history of ideas, style and taste, stylistics, psychoanalysis and archetypes; image studies, sociology of arts, genre theory, thematic, moral criticism and structuralism.


Influences, Schools and Movements in Literatures

A study of relationship, links, influences between authors, literatures periods, etc.  Here by international dimensions of comparative literature will receive special attention.  Subject like classicism, romanticism, realism, negritude, revolt, commitment, disillusionment are samples of viable topics.


Theme Study in African Literature

A study of significant themes in literature of Africa with appropriate selection of works and authors. Themes such as culture, fracas, revolt, violence, marriage and politics in literary works will be considered.


Literature and the Interdisciplinary Pursuit

Emphasis in this course will be on the interdisciplinary aspect of comparative study.  Connections may be found between literature and other disciplines such as Psychology, Sociology, Law, History, Linguistics, Music, application of modern technology such as film, the computer etc.  This study may utilize any knowledge in these other disciplines in the elucidation of the content and the analysis of the form of literary texts.


The Age of Enlightenment in French Literature

From classicism to pre-romanticism, the age of Voltaire, Diderot and Rousseau.  Emphasis will be laid on the ideas propagated as well as on the distinctive elements and qualities visible in the works of the main writers.  The dominate preoccupation of the age he age of rationalism and ideas-will be highlighted especially through the works o the ‘Philosophers’ (intelligentsia) such as the Encyclopaedia.


From Rousseau to Romanticism

A study of the movement from philosophical rationalism to a pre-romantic rehabilitation of the senses in the works of JJ. Rousseau, in romantic poetry drama and fiction and their distinguishing characteristics.  Works by Hugo, Vigny and Musset as illustrations of their specific contributions to the body of writing  and ideas belonging to the Romantic Movement will be studied.


The Novel in Nineteenth Century France

From romantic to realist faction: a study of themes, ideas and aesthetic theories that preoccupy the French novelist in the 19th century, realism and positivism in faction; the novelist as scientist, philosopher and aesthetician; the hero and the unheroic hero in 19th century French fiction, Flaubert and the French novel.


Aspects of Twentieth Century French Literature

Selected authors from the 20th century will b studied partly in the light of he new consciousness aroused ‘y the First World War as well as o a persisting catholic humanism.  Attention will be focused on the literature of revolt and revolution typified by the works of Camus and Sartre.  The Noveau Roman and the French Avant-garde Theatre, and the Theatre of the Absurd, will be studied.



Phonetics and Phonology of French

The course involved the description of the sounds of French, German or Portuguese, their organization into a phonological system and provides the students extensive practice in their perception and production.  The segmental and supra-segmental aspects of the sounds will be presented as closely connected units of system.


Applied Linguistics

The course aims at studying the application of the findings of General Linguistics and other related disciplines to the teaching of foreign languages.  It seeks to train the students to prepare, evaluate and adapt foreign language teaching materials to specific needs.


Foreign Language Research Methodology

The aim of this course is to acquaint students with the techniques and linguistic tools needed for research in foreign language studies.  Students will be exposed to investigations in the areas of linguistics, translation and the teaching of foreign language.


Morphology and Syntax of French

The course deals with the description of the morphological processes and syntactic patterns of foreign languages.  The formal tools and concepts required for this description will be presented

using various models.  Attention will be paid to the basic sentence structures and their relationships.


Theories and Methods Translation

This course examines critically translation theories and methods as they have been practiced from early times to date.  It looks at different types of translation and focuses on what the task o the translator is.  The necessarily comparative nature of translation will also be dwelt upon.


Semantics and Pragmatics

The course focuses on the study of meaning in general and in French, German or Portuguese languages in particular, at the word, sentence and discourse levels.


Translation: French into English

The course provides students with ample practice in translating different types of texts, ranging from literary to technical ones from French German/Portuguese into English.


Machine Translation

This course provides students with relevant insights into the development and use of machine for automatic translations. It also looks at the various problems associated with machine translation and their possible remedies.


Advanced Studies in Literary Translation                        

This intensive course aims at improving students’ translation skills, while familiarizing them with a wide range of literary texts from various genres.


Advanced Studies in Non-Literary Translation                

This course introduces students to a wide range of administrative, legal, commercial and technical texts, and to the translation of national and international documents.  Special attention is paid to the stylistic peculiarities of the various texts.


Translation: English into French

This course provides students with ample  practice in translating different types of texts ranging from literary to technical ones from English into French/German/Portuguese.


(ii)        Ph.D. Courses

Seminar  in Literature I

The seminar involves a close examination of modern literature particularly African Literature in foreign languages: English, French and Portuguese, with the aim of discussing issues that are particular interest to critics and researchers.


Seminar in Literature II

The seminar will be one subject to be taken from the student’s field of research.  It should normally involve highlighting and discussing the main issues that will feature in the thesis.


French Phonology

The course will examine the phonological system and the sound patterns of the French language, theories of phonological analysis such as he phonemic approach, the distinctive approach and the prosodic systems.  The articulatory, auditory and acoustic analysis of French shall be made.


French Syntax

This course will study some theories of grammar and will apply these theories to make an in-depth study of some aspects of the syntax of French.  These will include passivation, the syntax of the auxiliary, nominalization, pronominalisation, relativisation and interrogation.


French Morphology

The course will consider in detail the various morphological processes involved in word formation and word structure in French.  Models for morphological description will be examined as well as

interactions between morphology, syntax and phonology on the principles of word-level grammar in structural and post-structural linguistics.



The course will consider various theoretical approaches to the study of meaning in French, the formal nature of semantic representation and the interaction between the semantic and syntactic components.  The course will also treat the nature of theoretical evidence and argumentation vis-à-vis semantic description.

Foreign Language Acquisition

This course will examine the theoretical and practical issues relevant to the teaching and learning of second and foreign language: general theories of language learning, the role of the first language in the acquisition of other language, cognitive and socio-cultural variable at play, contrastive analysis, error analysis, language teaching methods etc.

Advanced Theories of Translation

Various theories of translation will be presented and evaluated in this course.  Some works will be examined in their original and translated versions, serving to illustrate different approaches to translation.  The course is also partly conceived of as a comparative stylistic study of the French and English languages, ad selected aspects of the vocabulary and syntax of the two languages will be thoroughly examined.

Bilingualism, Multilingualism and Interpretation

The aim of this course is to acquaint the students with the concepts of bilingualism and multilingualism and their implications for interpretation.

Contrastive Analysis

The aim of this course is to acquaint students with the various techniques and methods of contrastive studies in linguistics.  The history of contrastive studies will be surveyed.  The course will review the theoretical significance of contrastive analysis to translation, language typology and universals, and to Applied and General Linguistics.